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NATIVE PLANT LIST for New Hampshire, Maine & Vermont

 
 
   
This is a "starter" list of native plants for New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont. It is intended for residential or commercial landscapers who want to create attractive and varied native landscapes.


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  TREES     SHRUBS     GROUND COVERS and VINES    FLOWERING PERENNIALS    FERNS  
  Trees            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.
    Comments
 
  Balsam Fir
Red Maple
Sugar Maple
Mountain Maple
Yellow Birch
Paper Birch
Gray Birch
American Hornbeam
Pagoda Dogwood
(Champlain) Hawthorne
White Ash
Green Ash
Tamarack
Black Gum
American hophornbeam
White Spruce
Black Spruce
Jack Pine
Red Pine
White Pine
Bigtooth Aspen
Quaking Aspen
Pin Cherry
Black Cherry
White Oak
Red Oak
Black Willow
American Mountainash
White Cedar
Basswood
Eastern Hemlock
Abies balsamea
Acer rubrum

Acer saccharum

Acer spicatum

Betula alleghaniensis

Betula papyrifera

Betula populifolia

Carpinus caroliniana

Cornus alternifolia

Crataegus submollis

Fraxinus americana
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Larix laricina

Nyssa sylavatica

Ostrya virginiana

Picea glauca

Picea mariana

Pinus banksiana
Pinus resinosa
Pinus strobus
Populus grandidentata

Populus trembuloides

Prunus pensylvanica

Prunus serotina

Quercus alba
Quercus rubra
Salix nigra
Sorbus americana
Thuja occidentalis

Tilia americana
Tsuga canadensis
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F
F
F-P
F
F
F-P
F
F- P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F-P
F-P
F-S
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
W-A
A
A-D
A
A
D
D
A-D
A-D
A
A
A
A
A
W-A
A
A
A
A
75'
60'
75'
30'
100'
70'
40'
30'
25'
30'
80'
60'
80'
50'
40'
60'
40'
50'
80'
80'
70'
50'
35'
60'
80'
75'
35'
30'
60'
80'
70'

Open growth in hot dry locations, evergreen
Excellent fall color; tolerates wet spring soil
Excellent fall color, beautiful large shade tree
Useful in naturalizing
Does best in cool soils, beatuiful bark
White bark year-round, tolerates poor, dry soil
Does well in poor soils; good for naturalizing
Use for naturalizing; tolerates periodic flooding
Moist soil is important, white flowers in June
Red fruits in fall attract birds
Good fall color; tolerates alkaline soil
Grows fast; tolerates salt, drought, alkaline soil
Good for moist-wet sites & well drained sites
Excellent yellow-orange fall leaf color
Slow to establish after transplanting
Good specimen or windbreak; evergreen
Tolerates wet sites; evergreen
Useful for windbreaks in sandy soil; evergreen
Good windbreak; tolerates dry soils well
Handsome specimen; not tolerant of salt
Fast growing; short lived; good yellow fall color
Fast growing, short lived; good yellow fall color
Adaptable; fast growing; tolerates poor soil
White flowers (spring); wildlife food source
Large tree; transplant when young
Transplants readily; good fall red leaf color
Tolerates wet soils; twigs can cause lawn litter
Fruits good in wildlife landscape
Useful hedge plant; tolerates alkaline soil
Tolerates alkaline soil; use in urban landscape
Does not tolerate drought or windy sites
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Shrubs            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.
    Comments
 
  Downy Serviceberry
Shadblow Serviceberry
Alleghany Serviceberry
Bog Rosemary
Black Chokeberry
Buttonbush
Sweetfern
Gray Dogwood
Redosier Dogwood
American Filbert
Leatherwood
Common Witchhazel
Winterberry
Common Juniper
Lambkill
Labrador Tea
Sweetgale
Northern Bayberry
Bush Cinquefoil
Beach Plum
Chokecherry
Rhodora
Staghorn Sumac
Meadow Rose
Carolina Rose
Virginia Rose
American Elder
Scarlet Elder
Canadian Yew
Highbush Blueberry
Mapleleaf Viburnum
Hobblebush
Arrowwood Viburnum
Nannyberry
Highbush Cranberry
Amelanchier arborea
Amelanchier canadensis
Amelanchier laevis
Andromeda polifolia
Aronia melanocarpa
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Comptonia peregrina
Cornus racemosa
Cornus sericea
Corylus americana
Dirca palustris
Hamamelis virginiana
Ilex verticillata
Juniperus communis
Kalmia angustifolia
Ledum groenlandicum
Myrica gale
Myrica pensylvanica
Potentilla fruticosa
Prunus maritma
Prunus virginiana
Rhododendron canadense
Rhus typhina
Rosa blanda
Rosa carolina
Rosa virginiana
Sambucus canadensis
Sambucus pubens
Taxus canadensis
Vaccinum corymbosum
Viburnum acerifolium
Viburnum alnifolium
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum lentago
V. opulus var. trilobum

F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F-P
F-S
F
F-P
S
F-P
F-P
F
F-P
F-P
F
F-P
F
F
F
F-P
P
F
F
F
F
F
P-S
F
P-S
P-S
F-P
F-P
F-P

A
A
A
W
W-A
W
A-D
A
W-A
A
A
A
W-A
A-D
A
W-A
A-D
A-D
A-D
A
A
W-A
A-D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

25'
20'
25'
1'
6'
6'
3'
15'
6'
15'
4'
15'
10'
3'
3'
3'
4'
6'
4'
6'
30'
3'
25'
5'
5'
5'
12'
20'
6'
8'
6'
8'
15'
15'
12'

Edible/wildlife landscapes; orange fall color
Edible/wildlife landscapes; yellow/gold fall color
Edible/wildlife landscapes; spring leaves bronze
Evergreen leaves; requires moist acidic soil
Tolerates wet or dry soils; wine-red fall color
Good for wetland plantings
Aromatic foliage; good in dry and sandy soil
Suckering; white fall fruits eaten by many birds
Red stems attractive in winter; tolerates wet soil
Wildlife eats fruit; tolerates alkaline soil
Yellow fall color; thrives in moist, shady sites
Avoid drought; yellow flowers/leaves in fall
Bright red fruits persist into midwinter
Takes drought, wind, sterile or alkaline soils
Adaptable to many soils; best in acidic soil
Transplants well; good for moist-to-wet sites
Bushy plant; dark green, aromatic foliage
Good for massing; useful in poor soil sites
Summer-flowering shrub; tolerates alkaline soil
Good for edible landscape; salt-tolerant
White flowers in spring; wildlife food source
Magenta flowers in spring; best in acidic soil
Suckering; good mass plant for dry slopes
Single light pink flowers; suckering plant
Pink single flowers midsummer
Good in dry & seaside landscape; good barrier
Edible landscapes; tolerates alkaline soil
Flowers in July; red fruit mid-summer
Hardiest yew; good for shady landscape
Edible/wildlife landscapes; best in acidic soil
Good for mass plantings in shady sites
Open shrub; good for naturalized landscape
Durable; good hedge; tolerates alkaline soil
Good for wildlife and naturalized landscapes
Use for screening; good for wildlife landscapes
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Ground Cover and Vines          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.
    Comments
 
  Running Serviceberry
Bearberry
American Bittersweet
Virginbower
Bunchberry
Checkerberry
Creeping Juniper
Partridgeberry
Woodbine
Lowbush Blueberry
Cranberry
Fox Grape
Amelanchier stolonifera
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Celastrus scandens
Clematis virginiana
Cornus canadensis
Gaultheria procumbens
Juniperus horizontalis
Mitchella repens
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Vaccinum angustifolium
Vaccinum macrocarpon
Vitis labruscas

F-P
F-P
F-P
F
P-S
P-S
F
S
F-S
F
F
F

A
A-D
A
A
A
A
A-D
A
A-D
A
W-A
A

2'
6"
--
--
6"
6"
1'
2"
--
2'
6"
--

Stoloniferous groundcover; forms thickets
Best in poor, sandy, acidic soils; salt-tolerant
Climbing vine; dioecious; tolerates alkaline soil
Climbing vine; best in alkaline soil
Groundcover; white flowers & red berries (birds)
Evergreen groundcover; leaves reddish in fall
Tolerates hot, dry, alkaline soil; evergreen
Delicate plant; red fruits persist into winter
Hardy vine; maroon in fall; takes alkaline soil
Edible/wildlife landscapes; acidic soil
Edible/wildlife landscapes; acidic soil
Handsome foliage; good vine for arbors

 
For more info, enter a plant name
Find a Nursery in:
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Flowering Perennials          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.      Comments  
  Baneberry
Columbine
Spikenard
Jack-in-the-Pulpit
Milkweed
New England Aster
New York Aster
Marsh Marigold
Harebell
Blue Cohosh
Turtlehead
Bluebead Lily
Trout-lily
Joe-pye Weed
Boneset
Blue Flag
Indian Cucumber-root
Obedient Plant
Solomon's Seal
Silvery Cinquefoil
Bloodroot
Foam Flower
Wild-oats
Sweet White Violet
Marsh Blue Violet
Labrador Violet
Downy Yellow Violet
Round-leaved Violet
Actaea pachypoda
Aquilegia canadensis
Aralia racemosa
Arisaema triphyllum
Asclepias syriaca
Aster novae-angliae
Aster novi-belgii
Caltha palustris
Campanula rotundifolia
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Chelone glabra
Clintonia borealis
Eupatorium americanum
Eupatorium maculatum
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Iris versicolor
Medeola virginica
Physostegia virginiana
Polygonatum pubescens
Potentilla anserina
Sanguinaria canadensis
Tiarella cordifolia
Uvularia sessilifolia
Viola blanda
Viola cucullata
Viola labradorica
Viola pubescens
Viola rotundifolia
P-S
F-S
P-S
P-S
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
P-S
P-S
P-S
F
F
F-P
P-S
F-S
P-S
F
P-S
P
P-S
P-S
P-S
F-P
P-S
P
A
A-D
A-D
W-A
D
A-D
A-D
W-A
A-D
A-D
W-A
A
A
W-A
W-A
W-A
A
A-D
A
D
A
A
A
A
A
A-D
A-D
A-D

24"
12"
36"
12"
36"
24"
24"
12"
12"
36"
24"
12"
6"
48"
24"
24"
12"
24"
18"
6"
12"
6"
6"
2"
6"
6"
6"
3"

Attractive, but poisonous fruit
Early spring flowers
Good for back of border
Flower green and brown; bright red fruit
Attracts butterflies
Fall flowering; deep purple
Fall flowering; purple
Showy yellow flowers in early spring
Delicate blue-purple flowers
Blue fruits; back of border
Interesting white flowers in midsummer
Yellow ball-shaped flowers, poison fruit
Flowers early-spring
Purple flowers in fall; attracts butterflies
Green flowers; good for drying
Elegant form; blue-purple flowers
Interesting magenta floral bracts
flowers pink; leaves dark green; cut flowers
Arching stems w/ white flowers (spring)
Yellow flowers, silvery leaves
Showy white flowers in early spring
Delicate white flowers in early spring
Cream, bell-shaped flowers in early spring
Small white flowers, ground cover, self-sows
Blue flowers, spreading; self-sows
Magenta flowers; reddish foliage; self-sows
Yellow flowers
Yellow flowers, leaves large, round & leathery

 
For more info, enter a plant name
Find a Nursery in:
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Check Neighboring States?
Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Perennial Ferns          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.      Comments  
  Maidenhair Fern
Lady Fern
Hay-scented Fern
Spinulose Wood Fern
Marginal Wood Fern
Ostrich Fern
Sensitive Fern
Cinnamon Fern
Interrupted Fern
Royal Fern
Long Beech Fern
Christmas Fern
Adiantum pedatum
Athyrium filix-femina
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
Dryopteris carthusiana
Dryopteris marginalis
Mattuccia struthiopteris
Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytoniana
Osmunda regalis
Phegopteris connectilis
Polystichum acrostichoides

P-S
P-S
F-P
P-S
F-P
P-S
F-P
P-S
F-S
F-S
P-S
P-S

A
W-A
A-D
A
A-D
A
W-A
W-A
W-D
W-A
A
A

18"
18"
12"
24"
24"
36"
12"
36"
36"
36"
6"
12"

Delicate black stem, fronds almost circular
Lacey Fronds; reddish in spring
Fragrant lacey fronds; tolerates hot, dry sites
Lacey fronds; reddish in spring
Fronds blue-green; tolerates rocky sites
Beautiful fronds; fiddleheads edible
Easy to grow; spreads
Attractive cinnamon color fertile frond (spring)
Spreads well; luxurient spring growth
Vase-shaped; sterile fronds finely dissected
Smaller size fern, low growing, spreads well
Leathery, evergreen fronds

 
               
  TREES     SHRUBS     GROUND COVERS and VINES    FLOWERING PERENNIALS    FERNS  
 
1. While the plants listed above are native to and appropriate for their indicated regions, please recognize that, in some instances, human development alters the characteristics of a site such that it may be advisable to use plants from a neighboring region. For example, plantings in urban and suburban areas may receive reflected heat from streets, sidewalks and/or walls or be in media that receives less moisture than normal (e.g., next to a paved area – the pavement blocks rain from entering soil). Accordingly, using plants from a neighboring region that support higher temperatures and/or drier conditions may be more appropriate.

2. While a plant is native to a region, that does not mean that it will grow everywhere in that region. The characteristics of any site will typically vary from place to place and some plants may do better than others at various places within a site. In other words, a little experimentation might be required.

3. The above list is a starter list. Though adequate for most residential and commercial landscapes, there are many more native plants and should you want to consider them, please inquire at a listed nursery, community service organization, reference book or other resources.
 
 

CREDITS:

1. Gardening to Conserve Maine's Native Landscape: Plants to Use and Plants to Avoid. Univesity of Maine Cooperative Extension, the University of Maine and the US Department of Agriculture.
www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/2500.htm.

2. PlantNative Staff.


Find another Native Plant List!
 
 
 

 

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